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Actions to Consider in Cyberattack Defense and Mitigation


There are many facets to supply chain risk and major disruptions, and an ever-growing facet is that of a cyberattack disrupting supply chain operations, compromising data and risking harm to the business. There have been acute reminders already this year, the latest coming last week, when a new version ransomware attack spread from Europe across multiple countries, and disrupted the globe’s largest ocean container shipping operator

Many analysts and bloggers have reminded their respective functional readers of their responsibilities in either protecting the business from the threat of cyberattacks and in insuring their teams know what to do when such an attack occurs.  Supply Chain Matters adds its voice as-well.  hands typing 4 300x200 Actions to Consider in Cyberattack Defense and Mitigation

Brute Realities

The obvious takeaway for readers is that the frequency and sheer scale of cyberattacks are on the increase, and with that is a realization that there will be many more to come. Cybersecurity has become a multi-billion-dollar problem and concern that spans from the boardroom and C-Suite across many lines-of-businesses.

The skill levels of the attackers continue to be more sophisticated, taking advantage or all system vulnerabilities. Experts now believe that last week’s attack was yet another test of a new method, that being a piggyback of an automatic software updater for a specific business application.

Last week served yet another sobering reminder that some companies were not prepared, either in keeping systems and software updated with the latest patches or had not practiced various risk mitigation scenarios in terms of keeping business operations operational with protected back-up systems or in advising customers with timely updates as to what to expect.


Actions to Consider

Here are four specific actions that we at the Ferrari Consulting and Research Group advise supply chain leaders and practitioners to consider regarding cybersecurity:

Scope and Continually Understand Your Company’s Supply Chain Risks

Depending on the size of your company, there may well been many external systems risks prevalent in your company, or within your specific operational location. The reality is the supply chain teams have the most direct or intimate knowledge as to the many external information system touch points, which have increased with the expanded scope of globally-based operations. That includes outsourced product designers, externally based suppliers connected via EDI and B2B electronic business networks, contract manufacturing partners, services vendors, third-party logistics and customer fulfillment partners. Previous attacks have exploited such vulnerabilities, for example, hacking a services vendor web site to capture the system login credentials of a large and prominent customer. That was the profile of the massive credit-card hack that involved retailer Target several year’s back.

In last week’s incident, A.P. Moeller Maersk discovered that the attack spread across many of its linked operational systems, including its business subsidiary, APM Terminals, disrupting a reported 17 individual port operations including those of Rotterdam, New York- New Jersey, Los-Angeles-Oakland, and Mumbai.  The virus spread so quickly that the company’s IT teams were forced to immediately shutdown all systems. Backup systems were not activated for fear that the virus would impact them as-well. Exporters and importers could not tender any loads, phones could not be answered, massive cranes and supporting tugboats had to be operated manually without systems support. Mobile-based phone calls, text messages and social-media were the back-up plan.

If industry supply chain management teams have not done so, it is an imperative that they actively collaborate with internal IT systems and business continuity teams to scope, understand and take actions related to the most vulnerable systems related risks and to identify various scenarios for responding to and mitigating a cyberattack or system vulnerability.

Factor the Age of Legacy Systems

A reality of many legacy operational systems is that of age, in some cases systems and applications that have existed for over ten years. This author once heard a stat that the average age of some manufacturing and logistics focused systems is something in the order of 15 years. That statistic implies many vulnerabilities- operating systems that long-ago, stopped being supported by automatic system updates and patches. Further, as we all know, lots of change and customization can occur in such time periods, making it rather challenging to debug or trace a virus attack. Global hackers are well aware of the vulnerabilities of such on-the-ground systems, some with login credentials that have never been updated. The adage that: “if it ain’t broke, don’t mess with it” no longer has credence and can be putting the entire business at-risk.

At the same time, ripping-out and replacing many of such legacy systems can often be very disruptive and costly. Now is the time to consider investing in more security aware Cloud based systems or infrastructure platforms that touch critical business process areas such as manufacturing and customer order processing and fulfillment. That bring up another point, insure that your Cloud services and infrastructure provider is certified in the latest data security standards including the encryption of critical data.

Determine Specific Roles and Responsibilities in Business Continuity Management

Firms most able to effectively respond to a cyberattack, or for that matter, any major business disruption, are those that have well-defined, multi-functional and multi-line-of-business continuity responsibilities and action plans. responsibility for risk response to those closest to the actual process being disrupted. Cyber security is not the sole responsibility of corporate security and IT teams, instead it involves broader involvement and accountability. Who has responsibility for actively working with suppliers, trading partners and/or key customers on cybersecurity awareness and action plans? Who are the primary contacts for IT teams to know when considering the shutdown of a specific supply chain related mission critical system.

Such plans should include at a minimum, executives with specific responsibilities, designated response teams, emergency communications procedures including back-up processes when email, corporate phone or other prime communication systems are disrupted. One of the more important tenets of such plans is prioritization of tasks based on the assessment or perceived severity of the disruption, and of the protection of people, processes, and mission critical systems during the disruption.

A further consideration is assigning responsibilities to teams closest to the penetration to take to protect data and information from further compromise.

A business continuity plan that has too much dependence on corporate hierarchy decision-making can at-times risk the ability to have a timely response. The good news is that many businesses that have developed effective business continuity plans have been willing to share important watch-outs and learning.

Active Training, Questioning and Inquisitiveness

Partner with business continuity, internal and external supply chain teams to offer timely training and/or webinars on responding to cyberattacks as well as information security and awareness. Encourage questioning and inquisitiveness as to prior history of cyberattacks, which systems seem to be the most involved, what to look out for in unusual or suspicious activity, and who to call if something indeed looks suspicious.

Rather than a response of: “I’m too busy”, encourage a climate where information security is everyone’s concern, and better to make aware than to ignore.

Information and data security is an especially critical consideration for industry supply chain teams, one that demands added attention and actions in the weeks and months ahead.

Bob Ferrari

© Copyright 2017. The Ferrari Consulting and Research Group and the Supply Chain Matters® blog. All rights reserved.

Marked Increase in Supply Chain Technology M&A Activity


Within the past few days, there has been a marked uptick in merger and acquisition activity involving business process and decision-making support surrounding the broad umbrella of what is today supply chain management. Three different announcements, each involving OpenText, Descartes Systems and JAGGAER demonstrate various strategies being played out for augmenting technology, business services and vertical industry depth.

As 2017 began, one of our ten annual predictions called for a renaissance in supply chain focused business services and technology investments supporting augmented and ever-changing business process and decision-making needs. We anticipated that investment areas would include digital supply chain transformation, data visualization and more predictive analytics and broader end-to-end supply chain visibility.  Boardroom 300x200 Marked Increase in Supply Chain Technology M&A Activity

We anticipated that with a continued robust investment cycle, merger and acquisition activity would accelerate among technology and services providers, particularly in the notions of blending technology, software, and managed services.

OpenText to Acquire Covisint Corporation

Enterprise Information Management and Supply Chain Business Network provider OpenText announced this week that the provider has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Covisint Corporation, an automotive industry focused Cloud platform providing digital connectivity of business processes and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled processes. The reported transaction purchase price is approximately $103 million of market value or $75 million on enterprise value.

According to the announcement, the acquisition is expected to deepen Open Text’s EIM offerings with the addition of a cloud-based IoT platform, as well as expand the Canadian firm’s presence within Automotive industry supplier relationships and supply chain business process collaboration. The announcement indicates that Covisint will be integrated into the OpenText Business Network, a portfolio of cloud technology and software applications that facilitates B2B network messaging and compliant information flows.

Our automotive readers may well have knowledge of Covisint’s legacy dating back to the late nineteen-nineties as one of the first industry-specific B2B marketplaces. Of late, this provider has been messaging capabilities for building a portfolio of capabilities to support digital transformation that includes B2B messaging and process orchestration, identity, and verification, and IoT enablement.

The OpenText Business Network has provided a special emphasis on Automotive industry B2B business network needs and in May of this year, closed on the $100 million acquisition ANXeBusiness Corp. (ANX), a provider of cloud-based information exchange services to US Automotive and Healthcare industries. That acquisition was focused on simplifying relationships among the global automotive trading community, and now with the addition of Covisint, should strengthen such capabilities. This latest acquisition is expected to close in the third quarter, subject to customary closing conditions.


Descartes Systems Acquires PCSTrac Business

Descartes Systems Group and its associated Global Logistics Network (GLN), announced this week that it has acquired substantially all the assets of the business of PCSTrac, Inc. including certain related assets of Progressive Computer Services Inc. dba PCS Technologies (collectively referred to as “PCSTrac”). The reported acquisition price is $11.25 million.

US-based PCSTrac helps specialty retailers and their logistics service providers collaborate to improve carton-level visibility for shipments from distribution centers (DCs) to stores. PCSTrac’s technology provides visibility and insight into the store replenishment supply chain, helping increase sales, enhance loss prevention, and improve inventory control. Like Descartes’ Bearware platform, PCSTrac also supports pool distribution, which helps retailers reduce logistics costs and minimize store disruptions by eliminating unconsolidated direct shipments from suppliers and retailer distribution centers.

According to the announcement, pool distribution has become an increasingly important strategy in leveraging a growing community of retailers and pool carriers to lower distribution costs, increase delivery frequency, and improve overall replenishment performance. Effective pool distribution requires a common technology system for participants that helps standardize the process and provides carton level visibility across the entire store replenishment lifecycle.

Similarlyarly, Descartes had previously acquired BearWare to augment capabilities to manage the increasingly complex omni-channel retail supply chain environment. Both acquisitions plan to augment the Descartes Global Logistics Network with carton-level tracking and pool distribution support.



U.S. based procurement Source to Pay (S2P) provider JAGGAER, (formerly known as SciQuest), has merged with European-based POOL4TOOL, a specialized direct procurement technology provider. According to this specific announcement, this merger is designed to provide a global footprint of support for both indirect and direct procurement spend processes, and allow the combined entity to execute on a vision of a complete Cloud-based digital procurement platform.

JAGGAER had previously announced its intention to provide deeper vertical industry support. With this newly announced merger, JAGGAER’s footprint in Europe, Asia and the Middle East can expand as well as deliver a global presence for its data centers and customer support. It also adds direct material capability in the North American market. The merger further enables JAGGAER to extend its leading position in higher education procurement process support to expand within Europe.

POOL4TOOL, an admittedly different name for a direct procurement tech provider, brings over 300 customers to the merged entity. The direct procurement provider has further built bidirectional data and information integration capabilities with SAP. Both providers have footprints in automotive, manufacturing, chemical, pharmaceutical and sciences, along with retail industry processing a reported $65 billion in annual indirect or direct procurement spending.

As is often the case, mergers of this type are highly dependent on the timing and integration of two different technology platforms.

Thus, within a period of week, evidence, and demonstrations of individual technology vendor’s strategic positioning points to increased strategic activity. In addition, private equity and other investment firms continue to invest hundreds of millions of dollars in start-ups focused on hot emerging areas including digitalization of end-to-end supply chain capabilities.

However, at mid-year, still missing is the consummation of our prediction of a blockbuster M&A announcement.

Bob Ferrari

© Copyright 2017. The Ferrari Consulting and Research Group and the Supply Chain Matters® blog. All rights reserved.

Describing an Exponential Organizational and Supply Chain Capability

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In February, this supply chain industry analyst attended the Oracle Modern Supply Chain Experience Conference held in San Jose California.  Through Supply Chain Matters, I have shared several prior observations and takeaways from this conference. We noted the extraordinary attendance, upwards of 2800 attendees at a supply chain management information technology focused conference. We further highlighted the momentum of Cloud-based technology deployments in the many different business process areas that today come under the umbrella of supply chain management along with the building interest levels surrounding Internet of Things (IoT) technology being applied to future supply chain management processes.

There was one keynote that I initially did not share in prior conference highlights, principally because I needed time to absorb the many compelling messages that were delivered. The title was Exponential Organizations and the presenter was Yuri van Geest, Co-Founder of Singularity University. Yuri Exponential Organizations sized 207x300 Describing an Exponential Organizational and Supply Chain Capabilityhas a background in organizational design and is noted as a keen observer of exponential technologies and trends.  He is a co-author of the book- Exponential Organizations- Why new organizations are ten times better, faster, and cheaper than yours (and what to do about it).

The keynote opened with van Geest recounting the dizzying exponential developments that have occurred in artificial intelligence, alternative energy, biotechnology and medicine, robotics, additive manufacturing, sensors, and drones. His primary message was that most of these exponential technology developments will eventually impact supply chains and the organizations and people that makeup this community. His takeaway message was that the best vision of the future is happening at the peripherals of such technology development.

My initial presumption was that many of the conference attendees would have a difficult time absorbing the stark nature of the messages or would dismiss this talk as that of a technology genius speaking far above an ability to absorb the real implications.  Frankly, the conference organizers should have allowed additional time to accommodate all the content as well as to allow for further audience interaction.

Since the conference, I have had the opportunity to read the book and revisit my notes from the keynote. My goal in this blog is help distill what I perceive to be some other key takeaway messages related to future supply chain management organizational purpose, design, and work activities, at least from my perspective after having time to really absorb the content.

Geest did a suberb job of translating today’s far more exponential technology trends to what he viewed as direct impacts on industry supply chains. As an example, he stated that over the next ten years, the exponential developments in 3D printing capabilities will foster the ability to print nearly everything in materials including molecular assembly. The implication is the ability for products to be produced within primary areas of consumption, with the model of contract manufacturing being one of virtual capabilities to receive electronic design information and print on-demand products. A further implication is a more localized supply chain or regional network.

The notions of machine learning or cognitive acquired deep learning technology capabilities will at some point in the future lead to autonomous supply chain planning and customer fulfillment, where algorithms and physical sensing manage supply chain needs. While on the subject of planning, the book declares traditional five-year planning as obsolete, and that in exponential organizations, there should never be more than a one-year planning cycle supplemented by continuous just-in-time learning and events.

Regarding the physical, Geest further spoke to the compelling impacts that IoT focused developments would have on supply chains.  In the book, there is a passage that is worth sharing:

In the same way that today we can no longer handle the complexities of air traffic control or supply chain management without algorithms, almost all the business insights and decisions of tomorrow will be data-driven.”

Obviously, the messages are profound and perhaps threatening to many. None the less, van Geest’s message is that we cannot ignore compelling events and individually, people need to be trained and prepared with new individual and team-based skills.

To better understand the implications, I turned back to book to ascertain what were described as the key competencies of the future Chief Operating Officer, Chief Human Resources Officer and either Chief Data or Chief Innovation Officers.

Here are just a few excerpts to ponder:

  • Digital based production and the unbundling of production steps will free the company to focus on its core competencies (customer relationships, R&D, design, and marketing)
  • The notion of a recycled materials supply chain where production materials recycled and reused multiple times.
  • Internet of Things sensors used to monitor the entire supply chain.
  • The need for long-distance transport to drop over time due to the rise of localized production and a closed-loop material supply chain.
  • Universal Cloud access to social technologies, data, and services, independent of physical location.
  • Data management systems that use methodologies, processes, architectures, and technologies to transform raw data into meaningful and useful business information, available to all teams.
  • The need for Big Data security practices.
  • The hiring of employees based on overall potential, not just past record of accomplishment, and on the premise of who can ask the right questions.
  • New notions of peer-based and continuous learning.
  • Reputation measured by contributions in communities and work teams.


The book addresses the obvious question regarding the impact on future jobs. The premise is that the democratization of technology will allow individuals and teams to follow their passions and create new economic opportunities and businesses, far different than work being performed today.

These are heady messages, and will cause some pause or skeptics. We applaud Oracle’s supply chain management  conference organizers for hosting such a thought-provoking presentation.

From our lens, there is no denying that the exponential changes occurring in technology and business will eventually impact how supply chains are manifested and managed. The question is in what time frames.

The other obvious question, will teams and individuals be prepared?

We encourage readers to share further thoughts and comments.

Bob Ferrari

© Copyright 2017. The Ferrari Consulting and Research Group and the Supply Chain Matters® blog. All rights reserved.

Supply Chain Matters Shares Our Top Ten Blog Postings in 2016

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An annual tradition for the Supply Chain Matters blog has been to look back to the prior year’s readership uptake and share with our readers the top ten blog postings of the prior year.

Admittedly, we are a bit late in compilating all of our 2016 readership data but we did want to publish this for readers, clients and sponsors.

The list provides a sense of what particular topics were of the most interest in our over 300 blog postings published in 2016.  SCM 250 76 Supply Chain Matters Shares Our Top Ten Blog Postings in 2016

In the Dave Letterman style, we start with number ten and work our way down to the number one topic of readership uptake.

Number 10:

Observations on the Rankings for Supply Chain Planning Technology (February 5, 2016)

After industry analyst firm Gartner published its Magic Quadrant Rankings for Supply Chain Planning System of Record applications in mid-January, this commentary shared observations regarding the rankings of vendors. Our takeaway was that the current landscape of supply chain planning, sales and operations planning (SO&P) and B2B supply chain network planning technology was far more influenced by line-of-business and supply chain leadership input needs and requirements. Hence many other sources of information support the buying decision beyond industry analyst rankings.

Number 9:

The Value Proposition for Cloud Computing is Broader in Scope and in Business Implications (January 22, 2016)

This Supply Chain Matters commentary explored the implications of a full Cloud-based technology suite in supporting broad supply chain business process needs after industry analyst Bob Ferrari completed nearly two days of briefings and conference presentations related to Oracle’s Cloud based technology offerings. One takeaway provided was to view Cloud from the perspective of a broader focus on an engineered suite of pre-integrated software applications that are continually updated to reflect changing business needs. Why settle for business application innovation every 1-2 years when every 6 months is an option, and with lower capital and overhead costs.

Number 8:

Sports Authority- A Disturbing Twist to Consignment Inventory Management Practices (March 17, 2016)

Characterized as one of the largest sporting-goods retailers, Sports Authority was weighted down with debt from a prior leveraged buyout a decade ago. We called attention to a disturbing development in the ongoing bankruptcy process, as the retail chain filed lawsuits with more than 160 suppliers challenging supplier claims to consigned inventories. We opined that this development had significant ramifications for supplier collaboration practices within retail as well as other consumer goods focused supply chains.

Number 7:

A Disruptor is About to Enter the Heavy Truck Equipment Market (June 20, 2016)

Supply Chain Matters has continuously provided our readers visibility to emerging industry disruptors who are leveraging advanced technology and platforms directed at supply chain related business process and asset needs.  Such visibility included the entry of Uber and Lyft and their potential to move beyond people transportation. In this posting we provided visibility to start-up Nikola Motor Company and its ongoing development of a Class 8, 2000 horsepower electric powered semi-tractor truck that will be named the Nicola One.  The actual unveiling occurred in early December.

Number 6:

Chipotle’s Consumer Trust Crisis Enters a New Critical Phase (February 9, 2016)

One of our early blogs in a series of ongoing commentaries we outlined from a supply chain lens regarding the business, brand and supply chain crisis that impacted Chipotle Mexican Grill after hundreds of consumers were sickened by a series of varying incidents ranging from E-coli outbreaks to norovirus that date back to the summer of 2015. We opined that too much attention was being applied to corporate marketing vs. supply chain and restaurant risk mitigation efforts. It is now April 2017 and the challenges to restore brand trust remain.

Number 5:

Look to the Cloud to Support the Modern B2B Network (September 1, 2016)

This blog commentary addressed an organization’s journey toward mature B2B information integration and how this is made possible by today’s advanced cloud-based platforms, applications and infrastructure. We opined that there is no question that analytics and broader, more predictive business insight capabilities are opportunities to transform B2B business and supply chain business networks. The opportunity — and indeed the necessity — is to leverage an end-to-end business network to synchronize planning, execution, customer fulfillment and more predictive decision-making needs.

Number 4:

Gartner 2016 Top 25 Supply Chain Rankings- Supply Chain Matters Initial Impressions (May 19, 2016)

Our annual commentary related to analyst firm Gartner’s Top 25 Supply Chain Rankings.  Our annual commentaries reflect our beliefs that ranking criteria can be misconstrued, especially when it tends to favor supply chains that avoid major ownership of assets and inventory, or tend to weight other criteria lower, such as sustainability and social responsibility practices.

Number 3:

A Tour of Healthcare Supply Chain Innovation in Action (February 4, 2016)

Executive Editor Bob Ferrari shared impressions and insights regarding a November 2015 visit to the Cardinal Health Healthcare Supply Chain Innovation Lab located in Concord Massachusetts.  The lab served as a hub to explore innovative technology approaches such as smart sensors and near-field communications (NFC) in addressing healthcare supply chain product demand and supply inefficiencies.

Number 2:

What are Specific Skill Needs and Gaps in Supply Chain Management? (February 26, 2016)

Supply Chain Matters highlights results and an infographic from a supply chain skills survey conducted by Canadian based Argentus Supply Chain Recruiting outlining what specific hard and soft skills are organizations looking for in their hiring and recruiting efforts. Supply chain skills and talent development content has consistently drawn reader interest.


And now, a drum-roll for our most read 2016 blog:


Airbus and Boeing Continue to Experience Supply Chain Scale-Up Challenges (May 2, 2016)

After announcing Q1 financial and operational performance results, both Airbus and Boeing addressed ongoing challenges related to their supply chains and expected performance for 2016 total aircraft delivery commitments. We shared candid comments from Airbus’s CEO as to the global producer’s most critical new product introductions and clear signs of concerns related to various supply chain challenges. We also called attention to comments from United Technologies regarding the new Pratt and Whitney geared turbofan engine, which turned out to be the weakest link in the Airbus supply chain. Finally we concluded that for the two dominant manufacturers of commercial aircraft, supply chain challenges have once again come back as concerns amid an environment of robust order backlogs. Each has different manifestations and supplier challenges, and each reflects on internal operational scale-up as well. We opined our belief that challenging product design among the most critical supply components, including aircraft engines would continue to be the linchpin towards achieving required production scale-up milestones.


Thanks again to all globally located Supply Chain Matters readers for your continued readership and frequent visits.

Thanks as well to our sponsors, clients, and network contacts for their continued support. We will no doubt, have yet another set of different topics of reader interest throughout 2017.

A final thought, why not consider having your company’s brand appearing as a designated sponsor or advertiser on this blog. Send us an email at info <at> supply-chain-matters <dot> com and we will respond with all of the information.

Bob Ferrari

© Copyright 2017. The Ferrari Consulting and Research Group and the Supply Chain Matters® blog. All rights reserved.

Another Sobering Warning for Retail Industry- This Time from a Major Industry Supply Chain Influencer

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In a 2013 article, the New York Times had described Li & Fung as follows:

Li& Fung– the most important company that most American shoppers have never heard of- has long been on the forefront of globalization, chasing cheap labor to garment factories first in China, then elsewhere in Asia including Bangladesh.”

A lot has changed in four years but indeed, Supply Chain Matters has often referenced Li & Fung as the most influential player among global-based apparel supply chains and in supporting many major branded retailers in their apparel and other goods sourcing, merchandise selection and inventory procurement needs.

This week, the Asian based company reported a 47 percent decline in 2016 net profits, coupled with an 11 percent decline in annual total revenues. Further communicated was an indication that ongoing challenging conditions across the global retail industry would place additional challenges on its own business operations.

What caught our eye was these statements from the firm’s CEO as reported by Reuters:

I expect an unprecedented number of bankruptcies and store closures in the years to come. I remain cautious as (the) operating environment is deteriorating.

Li & Fung, being the largest influencer of apparel sourcing offering retailers access to tens of thousands of global suppliers in over 60 countries implies a large purview of business intelligence as to retailer buying practices, supplier payments and order volumes.

This is what makes the above Li & Fung statement so significant and rather sobering.

Our specific 2017 predictions and other research advisories specifically focused on the global retail industry continues to echo the unprecedented business challenges confronting retailers, driven from the implications of permanent consumer shifts to online shopping practices. These permanent forces will continue to present ongoing challenges, and retailers, and their respective supply chains, must adapt or suffer the consequences.

The casualties of retailers that have succumbed is building and so are the reports of bankruptcies and significant reorganizations in this year alone. Wal-Mart, one of the largest global retailers recently enacted job cuts and executive realignment directed at integrated online and physical store customer fulfillment. Last week, a sobering warning from Sears Holdings evoked added concerns and actions among retail suppliers and partners.

Now, one of the most influential players in merchandise and supply chain sourcing is communicating a similar sobering message.

The industry is already experiencing higher turnover and shorter tenures of CEO’s and C-suite executives, all trying to sort out different strategies to compete in an online and Omni-channel driven retail industry environment. The changes impacting retail continue to be described as unprecedented.

Supply chain leaders must get on board with fostering integrated online and physical store planning and customer fulfillment. Once again, the retail supply chain is not a collection of cost center activities to essentially support inventory procurement, warehousing and store replenishment. In today’s online fulfillment-driven retail model, the supply chain is a collection of capabilities directed at Omni-channel customer fulfillment and customer services capabilities. In 2017 and beyond, the alternatives are in-house, outsourced or hybrid supply chains.

Bob Ferrari

© Copyright 2017. The Ferrari Consulting and Research Group and the Supply Chain Matters® blog. All rights reserved.

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